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来源:投稿 编辑/作者:民生网友 发布时间:2019-08-09 05:45
摘要:李克勤(jixuie)题记: 毛主席对中国农民,对农村,对农业,有一整套的理论与实践,那是毛主席道器变通的重要内容。毛主席始终把人放在第一位,解决农村农业问题,当然就把农民放在第一位。中国农民有着自发的致

大乐透投注技巧预测 www.hoknj.tw

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  李克勤(jixuie)题记:毛主席对中国农夫,对农村,对农业,有一整套的理论与实践,那是毛主席道器变通的重要内容。毛主席始终把人放在第一位,办理农村农业题目,虽然就把农夫放在第一位。中国农夫有着自发的致富欲望,但依赖传统的步伐,只是少数人富,大都人穷。毛主席通过引导农夫自觉组织起来,走集团化阶梯,从而改变清贫落伍状态。

  延安时期毛主席有一篇重要著作《组织起来》,影戏《金光大道》内里有农夫集团进修个中的一段:

  【在农夫群众方面,几千年来都是个别经济,一家一户就是一个出产单元,这种分手的个别出产,就是封建统治的经济基本,而使农夫本身陷于永久的贫苦。降服这种状况的独一步伐,就是逐渐地集团化;而到达集团化的独一阶梯,依据列宁所说,就是颠末相助社。在边区,我们此刻已经组织了很多的农夫相助社,不外这些在今朝照旧一种低级情势的相助社,还要颠末多少成长阶段,才会在未来成长为苏联式的被称为集团农庄的那种相助社?!?/p>

  谁人时辰,在解放区就已经有了相助化试点,其后李顺告竣了典范。

  拜见:

  毛主席为农村集团经济的先驱李顺达敬酒的深意【图】

  世界解放往后,呈现了相助化飞腾。

  1956年1月,由毛主席主持编纂的《中国农村的社会主义飞腾》一书,就是专门先容农村相助社的。

  《书记下手,全党办社》和《勤俭办社》这两篇文章,是谈一个相助社的。个中《书记下手,全党办社》作为首篇收录,毛主席对这篇文章做了多处笔墨修改,并写了编者按。

  按语指出:“遵化县的相助化行为中,有一个王国藩相助社,二十三户贫农,只有三条驴腿,被人称为‘穷棒子社’。他们用本身的全力,在三年时刻内,‘从山上取来’了大批出产资料,使得有些旅行的人打动得下泪。我看这就是我们整个国度的形象。莫非六千万穷棒子不能在几十年内,因为本身的全力,酿成一个社会主义的优局强的国度吗?社会的财产是工人、农夫和劳动常识分子本身缔造的。只要这些人把握了本身的运气,又有一条马克思列宁主义的蹊径,不是回避题目,而是用起劲的立场去办理题目,任何人世的坚苦老是可以办理的。”

  毛主席在《勤俭办社》这篇文章的按语中写道:“这里先容的相助社,就是王国藩率领的穷棒子社。勤俭策划该当是世界统统农业出产相助社的目的,不,该当是统统经济奇迹的目的。勤俭办工场,勤俭办市肆,勤俭办统统国营奇迹和相助奇迹,勤俭办统统奇迹,什么工作都该当执行勤俭的原则。这就是节省的原则,节省是社会主义经济的根基原则之一。”

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  以后,西铺村成为世界远近有名的办社典范。

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穷棒子社,现在成了毛泽东文化的教诲基地

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视频链接:v.qq.com/x/page/x135769dx2v.html

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1959年的河北省遵化县王国藩穷棒子相助社 ,用起了拖沓机。

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1943年11月29日 组织起来

  这是毛主席在中共中央招待陕甘宁边区劳动好汉大会上的谈话。

  本日共产党中央招待陕甘宁边区从农夫群众中、工场中、队伍中、构造学校中推举出来的男女劳动好汉,以及在出产中的楷模事变者,我代表中央来讲几句话。我想讲的意思,拿几个字来归纳综合,就是“组织起来”。边区的农夫群众和队伍、构造、学校、工场中的群众,按照客岁冬天中共中央西北局所召集的高级干部集会会议的决策,本年举办了一年的出产行为。这一年的出产,在各方面都有了很大的后果和很大的前进,边区的脸孔为之一新。究竟已经完全证明:高级干部集会会议的目的是正确的。高级干部集会会议目的的首要点,就是把群众组织起来,把统统老黎民的力气、统统队伍构造学校的力气、统统男女老小的全劳动力半劳动力,只要是也许的,就要毫无破例地带动起来,组织起来,成为一支劳动雄师。我们有接触的部队,又有劳动的部队。接触的部队,我们有八路军新四军;这支部队也要当两支用,一方面接触,一方面出产。我们有了这两支部队,我们的部队有了这两套本事,再加上做群众事变一项本事,那末,我们就可以降服坚苦,把日本帝国主义打倒。假如边区客岁早年的出产行为的后果还不足大,还不足明显,还不敷以完全证明这一点,那末本年的后果,就完全证明白这一点,这是各人亲眼望见了的。

  边区的部队,本年凡有地的,做到每个兵士均匀种地十八亩,吃的菜、肉、油,穿的棉衣、毛衣、鞋袜,住的窑洞、衡宇,开会的巨细会堂,日用的桌椅板凳、纸张文字,烧的柴火、木炭、石炭,差不多统统都可以本身造,本身办。我们用本身下手的要领,到达了人给家足的目标。每个兵士,一年中只需花三个月韶光从事出产,别的九个月时刻都可以从究竟习和作战。我们的部队既不要百姓党当局发饷,也不要边区当局发饷,也不要老黎民发饷,完全由部队本身供应;这一个缔造,对付我们的民族解放奇迹,该有何等重大的意义??!抗日战役六年半中,仇人在各抗日按照地内实施烧、杀、抢的“三光”政策,陕甘宁边区则蒙受百姓党的重重封闭,财务上经济上处于很是坚苦的职位,我们的部队假如只会接触,那是不能办理题目的。此刻我们边区的部队已经学会了出产;前线的部队,一部门也学会了,其他部门正在开始进修。只要我们全体英勇善战的八路军新四军,大家个个不单会接触,会作群众事变,又会出产,我们就不怕任何坚苦,就会是孟夫子说过的:“无敌于全国。”我们的构造学校,本年也大进了一步,向当局领款只占经费的一小部门,由本身出产办理的占了绝大部门;客岁还只自给蔬菜百分之五十,本年就自给了百分之一百;喂猪养羊大大增进了肉食;又开设了很多作坊出产日用品。队伍构造学校既然本身办理了所有或大部的物质题目,用税收要领从老黎民手中取给的部门就镌汰了,老黎民出产的功效归本身享受的部门就增多了。军民两方各人都成长出产,各人都做到人给家足,各人都欢欣。尚有我们的工场,成长了出产,清查了特务,出产服从也大大进步了。整个边区,发生了很多农业劳动好汉、家产劳动好汉、构造学校劳动好汉,部队中也出了很多劳动好汉,边区的出产,可以说是走上了轨道。凡此,都是实施把群众力气组织起来的功效。

  把群众力气组织起来,这是一种目的。尚有什么与此相反的目的没有呢?有的。那就是缺乏群众概念,不依赖群众,不组织群众,不留意把农村、队伍、构造、学校、工场的宽大群众组织起来,而只留意组织财务构造、供应构造、商业构造的一小部门人;不把经济事变看作是一个宽大的行为,一个宽大的战线,而只看作是一个用以调停财务不敷的姑且本领。这就是其它一种目的,这就是错误的目的。陕甘宁边区已往是存在过这种目的的,颠末积年的指正,出格是经已往年的高级干部集会会媾和本年的群众行为,或许此刻还作这样错误设法的人是少了?;被懈鞲霭凑盏?,由于战役求助,也由于率领机存眷意不足,群众的出产行为还没有宽大的开展??墒窃谥醒氡灸晔乱缓诺闹甘就?,各个处所也都在筹备动员来岁的出产行为了。前线的前提,比陕甘宁边区更坚苦,不单有严峻的战役,有些处所尚有严峻的灾荒??墒俏酥С终揭?,为了搪塞仇人的“三光”政策,为了接济灾荒,就不能不带动全体党政军民,一面冲击仇人,一面实施出产。前线的出产,已往几年已经有了一些履历,加上本年冬天的头脑筹备、组织筹备和物质筹备,来岁也许造成宽大的行为,而且必需造成宽大的行为。前线处于战役情形,还不能做到“人给家足”,可是“本身下手,降服坚苦”,则是完全可以做到,而且必需做到的。

  今朝我们在经济上组织群众的最重要情势,就是相助社。我们队伍构造学校的群众出产,虽不要硬安上相助社的款式,可是这种在齐集率领下用相互辅佐配合劳动的要领来办理各部分各单元各小我私人物质必要的群众的出产勾当,是带有相助社性子的。这是一种相助社。

  

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  我们的经济是新民主主义的,我们的相助社今朝照旧成立在个别经济基本上(私有工业基本上)的集团劳动组织。这又有几种样式。一种是“变工队”、“扎工队”这一类的农业劳动合作组织,以前江西赤色地区叫做劳动合作社,又叫种田队,此刻前线有些处所也叫合作社。无论叫什么名称,无论每一单元的人数是几小我私人的,几十小我私人的,几百小我私人的,又无论单是由全劳动力构成的,或有半劳动力介入的,又无论实施合作的是人力、畜力、器材,可能在农忙时竟至集团用饭住宿,也无论是姑且性的,照旧永世性的,总之,只要是群众自愿介入(决不能强制)的集团合作组织,就是好的。这种集团合作的步伐是群众本身发现出来的。以前我们在江西综合了群众的履历,这次我们在陕北又综合了这样的履历。经已往年高级干部集会会议的倡导,本年一年的实施,边区的劳动合作就大为层次化和越发成长了。本年边区有很多变工队,实施集团的耕作、锄草、收割,劳绩比客岁多了一倍。群众望见了这样大的实效,来岁必然有更多的人实施这个步伐。我们此刻不但愿在来岁一年就把全边区的几十万个全劳动力和半劳动力都组织到相助社里去,可是在几年之内是也许到达这个目标的。妇女群众也要所有带动介入必然分量的出产。全部二流子都要受到改革,介入出产,酿成大好人。在华北华中各抗日按照地内,都应该在群众自愿的基本上,普及组织这种集团合作的出产相助社。
  除了这种集团合作的农业出产相助社以外,尚有三种情势的相助社,这就是延安南区相助社式的包罗出产相助、斲丧相助、运输相助(运盐)、名誉相助的综合性相助社,运输相助社(运盐队)以及手家产相助社。

  我们有了人民群众的这四种相助社,和队伍构造学校集团劳动的相助社,我们就可以把群众的力气组织成为一支劳动雄师。这是人民群众获得解放的必由之路,由贫苦变富饶的必由之路,也是抗克服利的必由之路。每一个共产党员,必需学会组织群众的劳动。常识分子身世的党员,也必需学会;只要有刻意,半年一年韶光就可以学好的。他们可以辅佐群众组织出产,辅佐群众总结履历。我们的同道学会了组织群众的劳动,学会了辅佐农夫做按家出产打算,组织变工队,组织运盐队,组织综合性相助社,组织部队的出产,组织构造学校的出产,组织工场的出产,组织出产比赛,嘉奖劳动好汉,组织出产博览会,动员群众的缔造力和起劲性,加上旁的各项本事,我们就必然可以把日本帝国主义打出去,必然可以协同世界人民,把一个新国度成立起来。

  我们共产党员,无论在什么题目上,必然要可以或许同群众相团结。假如我们的党员,生平一世坐在屋子里不出去,不经风雨,不见世面,这种党员,对付中国人民毕竟有什么甜头没有呢?一点甜头也没有的,我们不必要这样的人做党员。我们共产党员应该经风雨,见世面;这个风雨,就是群众斗争的大风雨,这个世面,就是群众斗争的大世面。“三个臭皮匠,合成一个诸葛亮”,这就是说,群众有巨大的缔造力。中国人民中间,其实有成千成万的“诸葛亮”,每个村子,每个市镇,都有哪里的“诸葛亮”。我们应该走到群众中间去,向群众进修,把他们的履历综合起来,成为更好的有层次的原理和步伐,然后再汇报群众(宣传),并招呼群众实施起来,办理群众的题目,使群众获得解放和幸福。假如我们做处所事变的同道离开了群众,不相识群众的情感,不可以或许辅佐群众组织出产,改进糊口,只知道向他们要救国公粮,而不知道起首用百分之九十的精神去辅佐群众办理他们“救民私粮”的题目,然后仅仅用百分之十的精神就可以办理救国公粮的题目,那末,这就是沾染了百姓党的作风,沾染了权要主义的尘埃。百姓党就是只问老黎民要对象,而不给老黎民以任何一点什么对象的。假如我们共产党员也是这样,那末,这种党员的作风就是百姓党的作风,这种党员的脸上就堆上了一层权要主义的尘埃,就得用一盆热水好好洗干净。我认为,在无论哪一个抗日按照地的处所事变中,都存在有这种权要主义的作风,都有一部门缺乏群众概念因而离开群众的事变同道。我们必需武断地降服这种作风,才气和群众亲昵地团结起来。

  另外,律师,在我们的部队事变中,还存在有一种军阀主义作风,这也是一种百姓党的作风,由于百姓党部队是离开群众的。我们的部队必需在军民相关上、军政相关上、军党相关上、官兵相关上、军事事变和政治事变相关上、干部彼此相关上,遵守正确的原则,决不行犯军阀主义的短处。官长必需爱惜士兵,不能隔山观虎斗,不能采纳肉刑;部队必需爱惜人民,不能侵害人民好处;部队必需尊重当局,尊重党,不能闹独立性。我们的八路军新四军是人民的部队,素来是好的,此刻也是好的,是世界部队中一支最好的部队??墒橇昀慈肥捣⒄沽艘恢志е饕宓亩檀?,一部门部队事变同道养成了一种高慢,对士兵,对人民,对当局,对党,横蛮不讲理,只求全做处所事变的同道,不求全本身,只望见后果,不望见弱点,只爱听阿谀话,不爱听品评话。譬喻陕甘宁边区,就有这种征象。经已往年的高级干部集会会媾和军政干部会,又颠末本年春节的用魅政爱民行为和拥军行为,这个倾向是根当地降服下去了,尚有一些残余,还必需继承去降服?;被懈靼凑盏啬?,这种短处都是有的,哪里的党和部队必需留意降服这种短处。

  无论在处所事变中,在部队事变中,无论是权要主义倾向或军阀主义倾向,其短处的性子都是一样,就是离开群众。我们的同道,绝对大大都都是好同道。对付有了短处的人,一经睁开品评,检举错误,也就可以纠正??墒潜匦杩棺晕移菲?,正视错误倾向,当真实施纠正。假如在处所事变中不品评权要主义倾向,在部队事变中不品评军阀主义倾向,那就是乐意生涯百姓党作风,乐意生涯权要主义尘埃和军阀主义尘埃在本身洁净的脸上,那就不是一个好党员。假如我们在处所事变中去掉权要主义倾向,在部队事变中去掉军阀主义倾向,那就统统事变城市顺遂地开展,出产行为虽然也是这样。

  我们边区的出产,无论在农夫群众方面、构造学校方面、部队方面、工场方面,都获得了很大的后果,在军民相关上也有了很大前进,边区的脸孔,和早年大不沟通了。全部这些,都是我们的同道的群众概念已经增强,同群众的团结大进一步的示意??墒俏颐遣桓酶媒景?,我们还要继承作自我品评,还要继承求前进。我们的出产也要继承求前进。我们脸上有尘埃,就要每天洗脸,地上有尘埃,就要每天扫地。尽量我们在处所事变中的权要主义倾向,在部队事变中的军阀主义倾向,已经基础上降服了,可是这些恶劣倾向又可以发展起来的。我们是处在日本帝国主义和中国反动权势的层层困绕之中,我们是处在散漫的小资产阶层的困绕之中,极度恶浊的权要主义尘埃和军阀主义尘埃每天都向我们的脸上大批地扑来。因此,我们决不能一见后果就骄傲自足起来。我们应该克制骄傲,时时品评本身的弱点,仿佛我们为了洁净,为了去掉尘埃,每天要洗脸,每天要扫地一样。

  列位劳动好汉和楷模出产事变者,你们是人民的首脑,你们的事变是很有后果的,我但愿你们也不要骄傲。我但愿你们回到关中去,回到陇东去,回到三边去,回到绥德去,回到延属各县去,回到构造学校队伍工场去,率领人民,率领群众,把事变做得更好,起首是按自愿的原则把群众组织到相助社里来,组织得更多,更好。但愿你们归去实施这一条,宣传这一条,使来岁再开劳动好汉大会的时辰,我们可以或许获得更大的后果。

  拜见:

  

GET ORGANIZED!

November 29, 1943

  [Comrade Mao Tse-tung made this speech at a reception in honour of the labour heroes of the Shensi-Kansu-Ningsia Border Region.]

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  On behalf of the Central Committee of the Communist Party I would like to say a few words at this reception it is giving for the labour heroes and heroines and other model workers in production elected from the villages, the factories, the armed forces, the government and other organizations and the schools in the Shensi-Kansu-Ningsia Border Region. What I want to say can be summed up in the words, "Get organized!" This year the peasant masses and the people in the army, the government and other organizations, the schools and the factories of the Border Region have been conducting a production campaign in accordance with the resolutions of the meeting of senior cadres convened last winter by the Northwest Bureau of the Central Committee. Great achievements and advances have been scored in every field of production this year and the Border Region has taken on a new look. Facts have fully borne out the correctness of the policy adopted by the conference of senior cadres. The gist of this policy is to organize the masses, to mobilize and organize into a great army of labour all the available forces without exception--the people, the army, the government and other organizations and the schools--all men and women, young and old, who can contribute their labour power on a part-time or full-time basis. We have an army for fighting as well as an army for labour. For fighting we have the Eighth Route and New Fourth Armies; but even they do a dual job, warfare and production. With these two kinds of armies, and with a fighting army skilled in these two tasks and in mass work, we can overcome our difficulties and defeat Japanese imperialism. If the achievements of our production campaign in the Border Region in recent years were not great or remarkable enough to prove this conclusively, our achievements this year have really done so, as we have all seen with our own eyes.

  In all the armed units of the Border Region that have been allotted land this year, the soldiers have on the average cultivated eighteen mou per person; and they can produce or make practically everything--food (vegetables, meat and cooking oil), clothing (cotton-padded clothes, woollen knitwear and footwear), shelter (cave-dwellings, houses and meeting halls), articles of daily use (tables, chairs, benches and stationery), and fuel (firewood, charcoal and coal). By using our own hands we have attained the objective of "ample food and clothing". Every soldier needs to spend only three months of the year in production and can devote the remaining nine months to training and fighting. Our troops depend for their pay neither on the Kuomintang government, nor on the Border Region Government, nor on the people, but can fully provide for themselves. What a vitally important innovation for our cause of national liberation! During the last six and a half years of the War of Resistance, the anti-Japanese base areas have been subjected to the enemy's policy of "burn all, kill all, loot all", the Shensi-Kansu-Ningsia Border Region has been tightly blockaded by the Kuomintang and we were reduced to the direst straits financially and economically; if our troops had been able to do nothing except fight, we would never have solved our problems. Now our troops in the Border Region have learned to produce, and so have some of the troops at the front, while others are learning. If every man in our heroic and combat-worthy Eighth Route and New Fourth Armies becomes able not only to fight and do mass work but also to produce, we need fear no difficulty and shall be "invincible under heaven", [1] to use the words of Mencius. Our organizations and schools have also taken a big step forward this year. Only a small part of their expenditure has come from the government, most of it being covered by their own production; they have grown 100 per cent of the vegetables they consume as compared with 50 per cent last year, considerably increased their consumption of meat by raising pigs and sheep, and established many workshops for making simple necessities. As the army, the organizations and the schools now meet their own material needs fully or for the most part, less is taken in taxation from the people, who can therefore enjoy more of the fruits of their labour. As soldiers and civilians are alike increasing production, all have ample food and clothing and are happy. In our factories, too, production has been stepped up, secret agents have been combed out and productivity has risen greatly. Throughout the Border Region, labour heroes have come forward in great numbers in agriculture and industry, in the organizations and the schools, and also in the army; we can say that production in the Border Region has been set on the right path. All this comes from organizing the strength of the masses.

  To organize the strength of the masses is one policy. Is there a contrary policy? Yes, there is. It is one that lacks the mass viewpoint, fails to rely on the masses or organize them, and gives exclusive attention to organizing the small number of people working in the financial, supply or trading organizations, while paying no attention to organizing the masses in the villages, the army, the government and other organizations, the schools and factories; it treats economic work not as a broad movement or as an extensive front, but only as an expedient for meeting financial deficits. That is the other policy, the wrong policy. Such a policy formerly existed in the Shensi-Kansu-Ningsia Border Region, but after the correct guidance given over these years, and especially after the senior cadres' conference last year and the mass movement this year, the number of people who still think this way is probably small. In the base areas in northern and central China, where fighting is intense and the leading bodies have not given it enough attention, the production campaign of the masses has not yet become widespread. However, since the Central Committee's directive of October 1 [2] this year, preparations are being made everywhere for a production campaign next year. Conditions at the front are more difficult than in the Border Region; not only is there heavy fighting, but natural disasters have occurred in some places. Nevertheless, we must mobilize the entire Party, the government and the army and the civilian population both to fight against the enemy and to engage in production, in order to support the war, to cope with the enemy's policy of "burn all, kill all, loot all" and to provide disaster relief. With the experience already gained in the last few years in production at the front, and with the ideological, organizational and material preparations this winter, an extensive campaign can be and must be launched next year. In the front-line areas where fighting is going on, it is not yet possible to have "ample food and clothing" but quite possible and, indeed, imperative to "use our own hands and overcome difficulties".

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